Blood is one component that can be categorized organ in the human body that has played a large role in maintaining homeostatic state associated with the circulatory system in the human body. Blood itself is composed of various components that make up a system in the body that are interconnected. Changes in the number and shape of the blood components capable of influencing the occurrence of interference on the condition of a person homeostasis that result in changes in body condition. Blood transfusion is one effort that can be done if a person experiences homeostasis disorders caused by shortage of one or several components (blood cells) of blood.
The circulatory system is a system that supplies the transport of substances that are absorbed from the digestive tract and O2 to the tissues, returning CO2 to the lungs and other metabolic products to the kidneys, to function in regulating body temperature and distributes hormones and other substances that regulate cell function. Blood that is as carriers of these substances being pumped through a particular system to the blood vessels by the heart. Blood composition consists of the following:
Blood Component Form Amount substance
Represent the blood plasma as 90% of complex fluid composed of H2O Covers composition blood components. In men: 58% BB
In women: 55% BB Consists of: 10% inorganic compounds (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCL2Na2SO4, and phosphate buffer), organic compounds and wastes 20% (glucose, amino acids, lactic pyruvic, Ketone Body,
Erythrocyte bikonkaf Discs, diameter 7 microns Adults: 4-6 juta/mm3
Infant / child: 9-12 ribu/mm3
Newborns: 90-30 ribu/mm3 Spektrin, Hemoglobin and protein fibers
Varies Leokosit of each type, can be distinguished by presence or absence of granules in each cell 40-10 ribu/mm3 Consisting of 2 types: Granulocytes (basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils) and Agranulosit (lymphocytes and monocytes) and these cells Dalan role of immune system
Platelets Represent fragment / small pieces of cells with a diameter of 2-4 microns 250-350 thousand / mm 3 consists of vesicles that contain a portion of the cytoplasm megacariosit (cells that apart from the outer edge of the cell) are wrapped by the plasma membrane
Leukocyte are white blood cells that consists of two major components, which protect the body against invasion of bacteria, so leukocyte very involved in the immune system in order to maintain the state of hemostasis. Cell type is composed of two main categories:
It is a small white blood cells, granule-granule contained in its structure, such as the mass of beads in the cytoplasm (the substance of cells). Three types of granulocytes are basophils, neutrophils, the eosinophils.
Basophils are the type leokosit the least amount and most poorly known in nature. Basophils derived from bone marrow that form and store histamine (function in accelerating the clearance of particles from the blood fat after we eat fatty foods) and heparin (to prevent blood clotting). Basophils have aftinity of dyes and dyes tend to absorb blue base.
Neutrophils are cells that have the kind leukocyte important role in the inflammatory process that provides the first defense to bacterial invasion. An increasing number neutrofil more than normal amounts indicate a bacterial infection, to overcome it can usually be given antibiotics. Neutrophils do not have aftinity of dyes because it is neutral.
Eosinophils have aftinity against the red dye eosin. Eosinaofil also contribute to the immune system usually through imfalamation reaction. Increased Eosinophils in the blood circulation in cases of allergy to the infestation of internal parasites (eg worms), obviously can not eosinophils memfagositosis these worms are larger, but the eosinophil cells will attach and remove materials that can kill the worm.
It is the substance of which have no mass leukocyte like granula or a characteristic beaded on granulocytes. Tues of this type has only one nucleus only. Consisting of lymphocytes and monocytes.
Monocytes Eosinophils have resemblance with the task that is to phagocytosis. These cells produced in bone marrow would then circulate in the blood for 2-3 days and finally settled in various tissues in the body. Monocytes will continue to grow and expand, known as macrophages which served as phagocytic, have aged a few months to several years.
Lymphocytes have a major role in the immune system for hemostasis someone defense condition. There are two types of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes B lymphocytes produce antibodies that circulate in the blood. The antibodies will bind and signal for destruction of certain foreign substances, such as bacteria that induces the formation of antibodies. While T lymphocytes directly attack target cells specifically. Cells that become targets include cells that have been entered by viruses and cancer cells, have the vulnerable age of 100-300 days with continuously circulate in the lymphoid tissue, lymph and blood. The number of lymphocytes in the blood often increases associated with chronic infection. This shows that in the event of an infection the body needs more defense cells, so that for a state body stay balanced, then the production and maturation of lymphocytes will increase in order to attack the agents of infection.
Increasing the number of leukocyte (leukositosis) shows the process of infection or acute inflammation, such as in pneumonia, meningitis, apendiktis, tuberculosis, and others. It can also occur burns, cancer, leukemia, hemolytic anemia and stress and emotional disturbances. Increased leukocyte also can be caused by medications, such as aspirin, heparin, antibiotics. While the decrease in the number leukosit (leukopeni) can occur in people with certain infections, especially viruses, malaria, anemia. Lekopeni can also be caused by the use of drugs, especially acetaminophen, sulfonamides, cancer chemotherapy, diazepam, diuretics, oral antidiabetika, indomethacin, and antibiotics (penicillin, cepalosporin, and chloramphenicol). Therefore need calculation leukocyte type present in blood in proportion to the% of each type of all amount leukocyte to detect and describe the incidence and disease processes in the body. Especially this infection. This disease leokosit table normal human proportions.
No Type Leokosit Adults (%) Adult (mm3) Child / Infant / BBL
Neutrophils 50-70 2500-7000 1 BBL = 61%
Age 1 year = 2%
A mature Same Segment 50-65 2500-6500
B Band 000-500 Same 0-5 adults
2 Eosinophils 1-3 100-300 Same adult
3 40-100 Same Basophils 0.4 to 1.0 adult
4 Monocytes 4-6 200-600 4-9%
5 Lymphocytes 1700-3500 BBL 25-35: 34%
1 year: 60%
6 yr: 42%
12 years: 38%
Leukocyte in adults tend to be much less compared with infants or children. This is because a few glands (eg thyroid) will get smaller as you age, so the ability to produce cell types leukocyte also reduced. It also became one of the causes of why someone her age growing increasingly susceptible to disease, may also be due to a bad diet.
When Leukocyte 11.000/mm3, it means you have leukositosis (increased number leukocyte), which indicates the infection process in the body, so the body produce and use or distribute the amount leukocyte above normal (4-10 thausand/mm3) against agents disease in the body. This is strengthened by the data that will be given antibiotics. Another question is why it is planned to get a blood transfusion Packed Red Cell 2 kolf 300cc. This is because the amount of Hb below normal by 9.6 g / dl which should range between (12-16 g / dl), thus experiencing shortness of breath and feel weak, because the main task is to carry oxygen hemoglobin in the blood. Because the number of low hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in oxygen so difficult to transport or simply to transport oxygen in small amounts, which disturb the circulatory system, especially respiratory. I think this is what causes the feeling cramped breath .Because it is necessary to do blood transfusions of Red Cell for the body's needs will be met Hb.
Blood transfusion will help the body maintain normal function. Blood is composed of red blood cells, white and platelets. Oxygen that blood carries nutrients and other substances that are essential for growth are important to your body tissues fix.
Our bodies need a certain number of erythrocytes, and platelets leukocyte. When the number of blood cells in circulation is too low, your body can not function with right way. As example, red blood cell count low disrupt our body's ability to carry oxygen, eliminates unused products and toxins, to keep warm and maintain blood pressure. Leukocyte a low effect on the ability to resist inspection. And if we do not have enough platelets, hence, blood can not clot properly.
If we have one of the deficiency of blood components, one of the alternatives is giving blood transfusions containing blood cells are needed. The blood that we receive may only contain one cell type or mixture. The biggest risk is infection and blood transfusion reactions and allergic reactions is low. So usually as giving a blood transfusion, will also be given antibiotics in blood transfusion recipients to anticipate the occurrence of infection.